Aging and obesity, the stems of insulin resistance
Aging is a natural process characterized by many cellular and molecular changes including inflammation and oxidative stress. Though physiological, these asymptomatic changes eventually lead to the development of insulin-resistance, a major risk factor for age-related diseases.
Similarly, this chain of events is also observed in overweighted people.
The combination of aging and overweight is a consequence of modern life leading to a pandemic of insulin resistance being notably highlighted by the number of pre-diabetic (> 374M) and type II diabetic (T2D) people (> 416M) worldwide in 2019.
If Insulin resistance has been widely described as a cause of T2D it has many other consequences.
Inactivity, overnutrition and to a lesser extent genetics are to add to aging as the main drivers for inflammation and oxidative stress (through the production of reactive oxygen species-ROS). These latter lead to insulin resistance by enhancing hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin resistance is common to many age-related diseases such as cancer, liver diseases, dyslipidemia, diabetes and prediabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and cardiovascular diseases
To date, one estimates that at least a quarter of the worldwide population might be affected by insulin resistance (including people with prediabetes, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity). Though it started in the western world, its occurrence in the developing countries where access to care is limited is a ticking bomb